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Accurate, Large Minibatch SGD: Training ImageNet in 1 Hour

Priya Goyal, Piotr Dollar, Ross Girshick, Pieter Noordhuis, Lukasz Wesolowski, Aapo Kyrola, Andrew Tulloch, Yangqing Jia, Kaiming He
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arXiv:1706.02677 [cs.CV], (8 Jun 2017)

@article{goyal2017accurate,

   title={Accurate, Large Minibatch SGD: Training ImageNet in 1 Hour},

   author={Goyal, Priya and Dollar, Piotr and Girshick, Ross and Noordhuis, Pieter and Wesolowski, Lukasz and Kyrola, Aapo and Tulloch, Andrew and Jia, Yangqing and He, Kaiming},

   year={2017},

   month={jun},

   archivePrefix={"arXiv"},

   primaryClass={cs.CV}

}

Deep learning thrives with large neural networks and large datasets. However, larger networks and larger datasets result in longer training times that impede research and development progress. Distributed synchronous SGD offers a potential solution to this problem by dividing SGD minibatches over a pool of parallel workers. Yet to make this scheme efficient, the per-worker workload must be large, which implies nontrivial growth in the SGD minibatch size. In this paper, we empirically show that on the ImageNet dataset large minibatches cause optimization difficulties, but when these are addressed the trained networks exhibit good generalization. Specifically, we show no loss of accuracy when training with large minibatch sizes up to 8192 images. To achieve this result, we adopt a linear scaling rule for adjusting learning rates as a function of minibatch size and develop a new warmup scheme that overcomes optimization challenges early in training. With these simple techniques, our Caffe2-based system trains ResNet-50 with a minibatch size of 8192 on 256 GPUs in one hour, while matching small minibatch accuracy. Using commodity hardware, our implementation achieves ~90% scaling efficiency when moving from 8 to 256 GPUs. This system enables us to train visual recognition models on internet-scale data with high efficiency.
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