9064

GRay: a Massively Parallel GPU-Based Code for Ray Tracing in Relativistic Spacetimes

Chi-Kwan Chan, Dimitrios Psaltis, Feryal Ozel
Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721
arXiv:1303.5057 [astro-ph.IM], (20 Mar 2013)
@article{2013arXiv1303.5057C,

   author={Chan}, C.-k. and {Psaltis}, D. and {Ozel}, F.},

   title={"{GRay: a Massively Parallel GPU-Based Code for Ray Tracing in Relativistic Spacetimes}"},

   journal={ArXiv e-prints},

   archivePrefix={"arXiv"},

   eprint={1303.5057},

   primaryClass={"astro-ph.IM"},

   keywords={Astrophysics – Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics},

   year={2013},

   month={mar},

   adsurl={http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013arXiv1303.5057C},

   adsnote={Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}

}

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We introduce GRay, a massively parallel integrator designed to trace the trajectories of billions of photons in a curved spacetime. This GPU-based integrator employs the stream processing paradigm, is implemented in CUDA C/C++, and runs on nVidia graphics cards. The peak performance of GRay using single precision floating-point arithmetic on a single GPU exceeds 300 GFLOP (or 1 nanosecond per photon per time step). For a realistic problem, where the peak performance cannot be reached, GRay is two orders of magnitude faster than existing CPU-based ray tracing codes. This performance enhancement allows more effective searches of large parameter spaces when comparing theoretical predictions of images, spectra, and lightcurves from the vicinities of compact objects to observations. GRay can also perform on-the-fly ray tracing within general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic algorithms that simulate accretion flows around compact objects. Making use of this algorithm, we calculate the properties of the shadows of Kerr black holes and the photon rings that surround them. We also provide accurate fitting formulae of their dependencies on black hole spin and observer inclination, which can be used to interpret upcoming observations of the black holes at the center of the Milky Way, as well as M87, with the Event Horizon Telescope.
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