Real-time Animation of Sand-Water Interaction

Witawat Rungjiratananon, Zoltan Szego, Yoshihiro Kanamori, Tomoyuki Nishita
The University of Tokyo, Japan
Computer Graphics Forum, Vol. 27, No. 7. (2008), pp. 1887-1893


   title={Real-time animation of sand-water interaction},

   author={Rungjiratananon, W. and Szego, Z. and Kanamori, Y. and Nishita, T.},

   booktitle={Computer Graphics Forum},






   organization={John Wiley & Sons}


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Recent advances in physically-based simulations have made it possible to generate realistic animations. However, in the case of solid-fluid coupling, wetting effects have rarely been noticed despite their visual importance especially in interactions between fluids and granular materials. This paper presents a simple particle-based method to model the physical mechanism of wetness propagating through granular materials; Fluid particles are absorbed in the spaces between the granular particles and these wetted granular particles then stick together due to liquid bridges that are caused by surface tension and which will subsequently disappear when over-wetting occurs. Our method can handle these phenomena by introducing a wetness value for each granular particle and by integrating those aspects of behavior that are dependent on wetness into the simulation framework. Using this method, a GPU-based simulator can achieve highly dynamic animations that include wetting effects in real time.
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