CitiusSynapse: A Deep Learning Framework for Embedded Systems

Seungtae Hong, Hyunwoo Cho, Jeong-Si Kim
High Performance Embedded System SW Research Section, Artificial Intelligence Research Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Korea
Applied Science, 11(23), 11570, 2021


   title={CitiusSynapse: A Deep Learning Framework for Embedded Systems},

   author={Hong, Seungtae and Cho, Hyunwoo and Kim, Jeong-Si},

   journal={Applied Sciences},





   publisher={Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute}


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As embedded systems, such as smartphones with limited resources, have become increasingly popular, active research has recently been conducted on performing on-device deep learning in such systems. Therefore, in this study, we propose a deep learning framework that is specialized for embedded systems with limited resources, the operation processing structure of which differs from that of standard PCs. The proposed framework supports an OpenCL-based accelerator engine for accelerator deep learning operations in various embedded systems. Moreover, the parallel processing performance of OpenCL is maximized through an OpenCL kernel that is optimized for embedded GPUs, and the structural characteristics of embedded systems, such as unified memory. Furthermore, an on-device optimizer for optimizing the performance in on-device environments, and model converters for compatibility with conventional frameworks, are provided. The results of a performance evaluation show that the proposed on-device framework outperformed conventional methods.
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