A Survey of CPU-GPU Heterogeneous Computing Techniques

Sparsh Mittal and Jeffrey S. Vetter
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)
ACM Computing Surveys, 2015


   title={A Survey of CPU-GPU Heterogeneous Computing Techniques},


   author={Sparsh Mittal and Jeffrey Vetter},

   journal={ACM Computing Surveys},


   keywords={CPU-GPU heterogeneous/hybrid/collaborative computing, workload division/partitioning, dynamic/static load-balancing, pipelining, programming frameworks, fused CPU-GPU chip, CUDA, OpenCL}


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As both CPU and GPU become employed in a wide range of applications, it has been acknowledged that both of these processing units (PUs) have their unique features and strengths and hence, CPU-GPU collaboration is inevitable to achieve high-performance computing. This has motivated significant amount of research on heterogeneous computing techniques, along with the design of CPU-GPU fused chips and petascale heterogeneous supercomputers. In this paper, we survey heterogeneous computing techniques (HCTs) such as workload-partitioning which enable utilizing both CPU and GPU to improve performance and/or energy efficiency. We review heterogeneous computing approaches at runtime, algorithm, programming, compiler and application level. Further, we review both discrete and fused CPU-GPU systems; and discuss benchmark suites designed for evaluating heterogeneous computing systems (HCSs). We believe that this paper will provide insights into working and scope of applications of HCTs to researchers and motivate them to further harness the computational powers of CPUs and GPUs to achieve the goal of exascale performance.
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