26852

Walle: An End-to-End, General-Purpose, and Large-Scale Production System for Device-Cloud Collaborative Machine Learning

Chengfei Lv, Chaoyue Niu, Renjie Gu, Xiaotang Jiang, Zhaode Wang, Bin Liu, Ziqi Wu, Qiulin Yao, Congyu Huang, Panos Huang, Tao Huang, Hui Shu, Jinde Song, Bin Zou, Peng Lan, Guohuan Xu, Fei Wu, Shaojie Tang, Fan Wu, Guihai Chen
Zhejiang University & Alibaba Group
arXiv:2205.14833 [cs.LG], (30 May 2022)

@misc{https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv.2205.14833,

   doi={10.48550/ARXIV.2205.14833},

   url={https://arxiv.org/abs/2205.14833},

   author={Lv, Chengfei and Niu, Chaoyue and Gu, Renjie and Jiang, Xiaotang and Wang, Zhaode and Liu, Bin and Wu, Ziqi and Yao, Qiulin and Huang, Congyu and Huang, Panos and Huang, Tao and Shu, Hui and Song, Jinde and Zou, Bin and Lan, Peng and Xu, Guohuan and Wu, Fei and Tang, Shaojie and Wu, Fan and Chen, Guihai},

   keywords={Machine Learning (cs.LG), Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing (cs.DC), Systems and Control (eess.SY), FOS: Computer and information sciences, FOS: Computer and information sciences, FOS: Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, FOS: Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering},

   title={Walle: An End-to-End, General-Purpose, and Large-Scale Production System for Device-Cloud Collaborative Machine Learning},

   publisher={arXiv},

   year={2022},

   copyright={Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 International}

}

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To break the bottlenecks of mainstream cloud-based machine learning (ML) paradigm, we adopt device-cloud collaborative ML and build the first end-to-end and general-purpose system, called Walle, as the foundation. Walle consists of a deployment platform, distributing ML tasks to billion-scale devices in time; a data pipeline, efficiently preparing task input; and a compute container, providing a cross-platform and high-performance execution environment, while facilitating daily task iteration. Specifically, the compute container is based on Mobile Neural Network (MNN), a tensor compute engine along with the data processing and model execution libraries, which are exposed through a refined Python thread-level virtual machine (VM) to support diverse ML tasks and concurrent task execution. The core of MNN is the novel mechanisms of operator decomposition and semi-auto search, sharply reducing the workload in manually optimizing hundreds of operators for tens of hardware backends and further quickly identifying the best backend with runtime optimization for a computation graph. The data pipeline introduces an on-device stream processing framework to enable processing user behavior data at source. The deployment platform releases ML tasks with an efficient push-then-pull method and supports multi-granularity deployment policies. We evaluate Walle in practical e-commerce application scenarios to demonstrate its effectiveness, efficiency, and scalability. Extensive micro-benchmarks also highlight the superior performance of MNN and the Python thread-level VM. Walle has been in large-scale production use in Alibaba, while MNN has been open source with a broad impact in the community.
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