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Deep Learning Inference on Heterogeneous Mobile Processors: Potentials and Pitfalls

Sicong Liu, Wentao Zhou, Zimu Zhou, Bin Guo, Minfan Wang, Cheng Fang, Zheng Lin, Zhiwen Yu
Northwestern Polytechnical University
arXiv:2405.01851 [cs.LG], (3 May 2024)

@misc{liu2024deep,

   title={Deep Learning Inference on Heterogeneous Mobile Processors: Potentials and Pitfalls},

   author={Sicong Liu and Wentao Zhou and Zimu Zhou and Bin Guo and Minfan Wang and Cheng Fang and Zheng Lin and Zhiwen Yu},

   year={2024},

   eprint={2405.01851},

   archivePrefix={arXiv},

   primaryClass={cs.LG}

}

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There is a growing demand to deploy computation-intensive deep learning (DL) models on resource-constrained mobile devices for real-time intelligent applications. Equipped with a variety of processing units such as CPUs, GPUs, and NPUs, the mobile devices hold potential to accelerate DL inference via parallel execution across heterogeneous processors. Various efficient parallel methods have been explored to optimize computation distribution, achieve load balance, and minimize communication cost across processors. Yet their practical effectiveness in the dynamic and diverse real-world mobile environment is less explored. This paper presents a holistic empirical study to assess the capabilities and challenges associated with parallel DL inference on heterogeneous mobile processors. Through carefully designed experiments covering various DL models, mobile software/hardware environments, workload patterns, and resource availability, we identify limitations of existing techniques and highlight opportunities for cross-level optimization.
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