Makespan computation for GPU threads running on a single streaming multiprocessor

Kostiantyn Berezovskyi, Konstantinos Bletsas, Bjorn Andersson
Polytechnic Institute of Porto (ISEP-IPP), Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
Technical report HURRAY-TR-111215, 2011


   title={Makespan computation for GPU threads running on a single streaming multiprocessor},

   author={Berezovskyi, K. and Bletsas, K. and Andersson, B.},



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Graphics processors were originally developed for rendering graphics but have recently evolved towards being an architecture for general-purpose computations. They are also expected to become important parts of embedded systems hardware – not just for graphics. However, this necessitates the development of appropriate timing analysis techniques which would be required because techniques developed for CPU scheduling are not applicable. The reason is that we are not interested in how long it takes for any given GPU thread to complete, but rather how long it takes for all of them to complete. We therefore develop a simple method for finding an upper bound on the makespan of a group of GPU threads executing the same program and competing for the resources of a single streaming multiprocessor (whose architecture is based on NVIDIA Fermi, with some simplifying assumptions). We then build upon this method to formulate the derivation of the exact worst-case makespan (and corresponding schedule) as an optimization problem. Addressing the issue of tractability, we also present a technique for efficiently computing a safe estimate of the worstcase makespan with minimal pessimism, which may be used when finding an exact value would take too long.
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