QArray: a GPU-accelerated constant capacitance model simulator for large quantum dot arrays

Barnaby van Straaten, Joseph Hickie, Lucas Schorling, Jonas Schuff, Federico Fedele, Natalia Ares
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH, United Kingdom
arXiv:2404.04994 [cond-mat.mes-hall]


   title={QArray: a GPU-accelerated constant capacitance model simulator for large quantum dot arrays},

   author={Barnaby van Straaten and Joseph Hickie and Lucas Schorling and Jonas Schuff and Federico Fedele and Natalia Ares},






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Semiconductor quantum dot arrays are a leading architecture for the development of quantum technologies. Over the years, the constant capacitance model has served as a fundamental framework for simulating, understanding, and navigating the charge stability diagrams of small quantum dot arrays. However, while the size of the arrays keeps growing, solving the constant capacitance model becomes computationally prohibitive. This paper presents an open-source software package able to compute a 100×100 pixels charge stability diagram of a 16-dot array in less than a second. Smaller arrays can be simulated in milliseconds – faster than they could be measured experimentally, enabling the creation of diverse datasets for training machine learning models and the creation of digital twins that can interface with quantum dot devices in real-time. Our software package implements its core functionalities in the systems programming language Rust and the high-performance numerical computing library JAX. The Rust implementation benefits from advanced optimisations and parallelisation, enabling the users to take full advantage of multi-core processors. The JAX implementation allows for GPU acceleration.
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