Practical craniofacial surgery simulator based on GPU accelerated lattice shape matching

Sheng-Hui Liao, Yixiong Liang, Ling-Zhi Li, Bei-Ji Zou, Xing-Hao Zhu, Wei Ai
School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China
Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds, Special Issue: CASA’ 2011 Special Issue, Volume 22, Issue 2-3, pages 269-276, April – May 2011


   title={Practical craniofacial surgery simulator based on GPU accelerated lattice shape matching},

   author={Liao, S.H. and Liang, Y. and Li, L.Z. and Zou, B.J. and Zhu, X.H. and Ai, W.},

   journal={Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds},


   publisher={Wiley Online Library},



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This paper presents an intuitive and practical craniofacial surgery simulation system, which is suitable for daily clinical practice. The key component of the system is a GPU accelerated lattice shape matching method, to estimate individual patient post-operative appearance interactively. The lattice model can be set up from individual CT data in an easy and robust way, incorporating CT mapping physical inhomogeneous material as well as orthotropic behavior of soft tissue. Instead of simulating dynamic behavior, an iterative optimization is used for direct computation of soft tissue deformation. In addition, a GPU acceleration framework for the lattice shape matching method is further exploited based on the lattice regularity, thus the simulation operations can be performed at interactive or real time. Finally, a craniofacial surgery simulation system is developed for daily clinical practice, which is capable of simulating a variety of surgeries including osteotomies, bone fragment repositioning, and insertion of implants. The treatment of more than 50 patients was found to provide a good correlation between simulation and post-operative outcome.
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