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Tuned and wildly asynchronous stencil kernels for hybrid CPU/GPU systems

Sundaresan Venkatasubramanian, Richard W. Vuduc, None None
Georgia Institute of Technology, College of Computing, School of Computer Science, 266 Ferst Drive, Altanta, Georgia, USA
In ICS ’09: Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on Supercomputing (2009), pp. 244-255.

@conference{venkatasubramanian2009tuned,

   title={Tuned and wildly asynchronous stencil kernels for hybrid CPU/GPU systems},

   author={Venkatasubramanian, S. and Vuduc, R.W. and others},

   booktitle={Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on Supercomputing},

   pages={244–255},

   year={2009},

   organization={ACM}

}

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We describe heterogeneous multi-CPU and multi-GPU implementations of Jacobi’s iterative method for the 2-D Poisson equation on a structured grid, in both single- and double-precision. Properly tuned, our best implementation achieves 98% of the empirical streaming GPU bandwidth (66% of peak) on a NVIDIA C1060, and 78% on a C870. Motivated to find a still faster implementation, we further consider “wildly asynchronous” implementations that can reduce or even eliminate the synchronization bottleneck between iterations. In these versions, which are based on chaotic relaxation (Chazan and Miranker, 1969), we simply remove or delay synchronization between iterations. By doing so, we trade-off more flops, via more iterations to converge, for a higher degree of asynchronous parallelism. Our wild implementations on a GPU can be 1.2-2.5x faster than our best synchronized GPU implementation while achieving the same accuracy. Looking forward, this result suggests research on similarly “fast-and-loose” algorithms in the coming era of increasingly massive concurrency and relatively high synchronization or communication costs.
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