A Scalable Hybrid FPGA/GPU FX Correlator

J. Kocz, L.J. Greenhill, B.R. Barsdell, G. Bernardi, A. Jameson, J. Craig, D. Price, G.B. Taylor, F. Schinzel, D. Werthimer
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138, USA
arXiv:1401.8288 [astro-ph.IM], (31 Jan 2014)


   title={A Scalable Hybrid FPGA/GPU FX Correlator},

   author={Kocz, J. and Greenhill, L.J. and Barsdell, B.R. and Bernardi, G. and Jameson, A. and Craig, J. and Price, D. and Taylor, G.B. and Schinzel, F. and Werthimer, D.},



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Radio astronomical imaging arrays comprising large numbers of antennas, O(10^2-10^3) have posed a signal processing challenge because of the required O(N^2) cross correlation of signals from each antenna and requisite signal routing. This motivated the implementation of a Packetized Correlator architecture that applies Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to the O(N) "F-stage" transforming time domain to frequency domain data, and Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to the O(N^2) "X-stage" performing an outer product among spectra for each antenna. The design is readily scalable to at least O(10^3) antennas. Fringes, visibility amplitudes and sky image results obtained during field testing are presented.
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