## Real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92037-0843

Medical Physics, vol. 37, issue 6, p. 2822, arXiv:1004.0014 [physics.med-ph] (31 Mar 2010)

@article{li2010real,

title={Real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy},

author={Li, R. and Jia, X. and Lewis, J.H. and Gu, X. and Folkerts, M. and Men, C. and Jiang, S.B.},

journal={Medical physics},

volume={37},

pages={2822},

year={2010}

}

Purpose: To develop an algorithm for real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: Given a set of volumetric images of a patient at N breathing phases as the training data, we perform deformable image registration between a reference phase and the other N-1 phases, resulting in N-1 deformation vector fields (DVFs). These DVFs can be represented efficiently by a few eigenvectors and coefficients obtained from principal component analysis (PCA). By varying the PCA coefficients, we can generate new DVFs, which, when applied on the reference image, lead to new volumetric images. We then can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single projection image by optimizing the PCA coefficients such that its computed projection matches the measured one. The 3D location of the tumor can be derived by applying the inverted DVF on its position in the reference image. Our algorithm was implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs) to achieve real-time efficiency. We generated the training data using a realistic and dynamic mathematical phantom with 10 breathing phases. The testing data were 360 cone beam projections corresponding to one gantry rotation, simulated using the same phantom with a 50% increase in breathing amplitude. Results: The average relative image intensity error of the reconstructed volumetric images is 6.9% +/- 2.4%. The average 3D tumor localization error is 0.8 mm +/- 0.5 mm. On an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 GPU card, the average computation time for reconstructing a volumetric image from each projection is 0.24 seconds (range: 0.17 and 0.35 seconds). Conclusions: We have shown the feasibility of reconstructing volumetric images and localizing tumor positions in 3D in near real-time from a single x-ray image.

November 12, 2010 by hgpu