Vector and Line Quantization for Billion-scale Similarity Search on GPUs

Wei Chen, Jincai Chen, Fuhao Zou, Yuan-Fang Li, Ping Lu, Qiang Wang, Wei Zhao
Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
arXiv:1901.00275 [cs.CV], (2 Jan 2019)


   title={Vector and Line Quantization for Billion-scale Similarity Search on GPUs},

   author={Chen, Wei and Chen, Jincai and Zou, Fuhao and Li, Yuan-Fang and Lu, Ping and Wang, Qiang and Zhao, Wei},






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Billion-scale high-dimensional approximate nearest neighbour (ANN) search has become an important problem for searching similar objects among the vast amount of images and videos available online. The existing ANN methods are usually characterized by their specific indexing structures, including the inverted index and the inverted multi-index. The inverted index structure is amenable to GPU-based implementations, and the state-of-the-art systems such as Faiss are able to exploit the massive parallelism offered by GPUs. However, the inverted index requires high memory overhead to index the dataset effectively. The inverted multi-index is difficult to implement for GPUs, and also ineffective in dealing with database with different data distributions. In this paper we propose a novel hierarchical inverted index structure generated by vector and line quantization methods. Our quantization method improves both search efficiency and accuracy, while maintaining comparable memory consumption. This is achieved by reducing search space and increasing the number of indexed regions. We introduce a new ANN search system, VLQ-ADC, that is based on the proposed inverted index, and perform extensive evaluation on two public billion-scale benchmark datasets SIFT1B and DEEP1B. Our evaluation shows that VLQ-ADC significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art GPU- and CPU-based systems in terms of both accuracy and search speed.
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