3D tumor localization through real-time volumetric x-ray imaging for lung cancer radiotherapy

Ruijiang Li, John H. Lewis, Xun Jia, Xuejun Gu, Michael Folkerts, Chunhua Men, William Y. Song, Steve B. Jiang
Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037
arXiv:1102.1712 [physics.med-ph] (8 Feb 2011)


   author={Li}, R. and {Lewis}, J.~H. and {Jia}, X. and {Gu}, X. and {Folkerts}, M. and {Men}, C. and {Song}, W.~Y. and {Jiang}, S.~B.},

   title={“{3D tumor localization through real-time volumetric x-ray imaging for lung cancer radiotherapy}”},

   journal={ArXiv e-prints},




   keywords={Physics – Medical Physics},




   adsnote={Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System}


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Recently we have developed an algorithm for reconstructing volumetric images and extracting 3D tumor motion information from a single x-ray projection. We have demonstrated its feasibility using a digital respiratory phantom with regular breathing patterns. In this work, we present a detailed description and a comprehensive evaluation of the improved algorithm. The algorithm was improved by incorporating respiratory motion prediction. The accuracy and efficiency were then evaluated on 1) a digital respiratory phantom, 2) a physical respiratory phantom, and 3) five lung cancer patients. These evaluation cases include both regular and irregular breathing patterns that are different from the training dataset. For the digital respiratory phantom with regular and irregular breathing, the average 3D tumor localization error is less than 1 mm. On an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 GPU card, the average computation time for 3D tumor localization from each projection ranges between 0.19 and 0.26 seconds, for both regular and irregular breathing, which is about a 10% improvement over previously reported results. For the physical respiratory phantom, an average tumor localization error below 1 mm was achieved with an average computation time of 0.13 and 0.16 seconds on the same GPU card, for regular and irregular breathing, respectively. For the five lung cancer patients, the average tumor localization error is below 2 mm in both the axial and tangential directions. The average computation time on the same GPU card ranges between 0.26 and 0.34 seconds.
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