Pegasus: coordinated scheduling for virtualized accelerator-based systems

Vishakha Gupta, Karsten Schwan, Niraj Tolia, Vanish Talwar, Parthasarathy Ranganathan
Georgia Institute of Technology
Proceedings of the 2011 USENIX conference on USENIX annual technical conference, USENIXATC’11, 2011


   title={Pegasus: Coordinated scheduling for virtualized accelerator-based systems},

   author={Gupta, V. and Schwan, K. and Tolia, N. and Talwar, V. and Ranganathan, P.},

   booktitle={2011 USENIX Annual Technical Conference (USENIX ATC’11)},




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Heterogeneous multi-cores–platforms comprised of both general purpose and accelerator cores–are becoming increasingly common. While applications wish to freely utilize all cores present on such platforms, operating systems continue to view accelerators as specialized devices. The Pegasus system described in this paper uses an alternative approach that offers a uniform resource usage model for all cores on heterogeneous chip multiprocessors. Operating at the hypervisor level, its novel scheduling methods fairly and efficiently share accelerators across multiple virtual machines, thereby making accelerators into first class schedulable entities of choice for many-core applications. Using NVIDIA GPGPUs coupled with x86-based general purpose host cores, a Xen-based implementation of Pegasus demonstrates improved performance for applications by better managing combined platform resources. With moderate virtualization penalties, performance improvements range from 18% to 140% over base GPU driver scheduling when the GPUs are shared.
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