TensorFlow: A system for large-scale machine learning

Martin Abadi, Paul Barham, Jianmin Chen, Zhifeng Chen, Andy Davis, Jeffrey Dean, Matthieu Devin, Sanjay Ghemawat, Geoffrey Irving, Michael Isard, Manjunath Kudlur, Josh Levenberg, Rajat Monga, Sherry Moore, Derek G. Murray, Benoit Steiner, Paul Tucker, Vijay Vasudevan, Pete Warden, Martin Wicke, Yuan Yu, Xiaoqiang Zhang
Google Brain
arXiv:1605.08695 [cs.DC], (27 May 2016)


   title={TensorFlow: A system for large-scale machine learning},

   author={Abadi, Martin and Barham, Paul and Chen, Jianmin and Chen, Zhifeng and Davis, Andy and Dean, Jeffrey and Devin, Matthieu and Ghemawat, Sanjay and Irving, Geoffrey and Isard, Michael and Kudlur, Manjunath and Levenberg, Josh and Monga, Rajat and Moore, Sherry and Murray, Derek G. and Steiner, Benoit and Tucker, Paul and Vasudevan, Vijay and Warden, Pete and Wicke, Martin and Yu, Yuan and Zhang, Xiaoqiang},






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TensorFlow is a machine learning system that operates at large scale and in heterogeneous environments. TensorFlow uses dataflow graphs to represent computation, shared state, and the operations that mutate that state. It maps the nodes of a dataflow graph across many machines in a cluster, and within a machine across multiple computational devices, including multicore CPUs, general-purpose GPUs, and custom designed ASICs known as Tensor Processing Units (TPUs). This architecture gives flexibility to the application developer: whereas in previous "parameter server" designs the management of shared state is built into the system, TensorFlow enables developers to experiment with novel optimizations and training algorithms. TensorFlow supports a variety of applications, with particularly strong support for training and inference on deep neural networks. Several Google services use TensorFlow in production, we have released it as an open-source project, and it has become widely used for machine learning research. In this paper, we describe the TensorFlow dataflow model in contrast to existing systems, and demonstrate the compelling performance that TensorFlow achieves for several real-world applications.
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