16790

ESE: Efficient Speech Recognition Engine with Compressed LSTM on FPGA

Song Han, Junlong Kang, Huizi Mao, Yiming Hu, Xin Li, Yubin Li, Dongliang Xie, Hong Luo, Song Yao, Yu Wang, Huazhong Yang, William J. Dally
Stanford University
arXiv:1612.00694 [cs.CL], (1 Dec 2016)

@article{han2016efficient,

   title={ESE: Efficient Speech Recognition Engine with Compressed LSTM on FPGA},

   author={Han, Song and Kang, Junlong and Mao, Huizi and Hu, Yiming and Li, Xin and Li, Yubin and Xie, Dongliang and Luo, Hong and Yao, Song and Wang, Yu and Yang, Huazhong and Dally, William J.},

   year={2016},

   month={dec},

   archivePrefix={"arXiv"},

   primaryClass={cs.CL}

}

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Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) is widely used in speech recognition. In order to achieve higher prediction accuracy, machine learning scientists have built larger and larger models. Such large model is both computation intensive and memory intensive. Deploying such bulky model results in high power consumption and leads to high total cost of ownership (TCO) of a data center. In order to speedup the prediction and make it energy efficient, we first propose a load-balance-aware pruning method that can compress the LSTM model size by 20x (10x from pruning and 2x from quantization) with negligible loss of the prediction accuracy. The pruned model is friendly for parallel processing. Next, we propose scheduler that encodes and partitions the compressed model to each PE for parallelism, and schedule the complicated LSTM data flow. Finally, we design the hardware architecture, named Efficient Speech Recognition Engine (ESE) that works directly on the compressed model. Implemented on Xilinx XCKU060 FPGA running at 200MHz, ESE has a performance of 282 GOPS working directly on the compressed LSTM network, corresponding to 2.52 TOPS on the uncompressed one, and processes a full LSTM for speech recognition with a power dissipation of 41 Watts. Evaluated on the LSTM for speech recognition benchmark, ESE is 43x and 3x faster than Core i7 5930k CPU and Pascal Titan X GPU implementations. It achieves 40x and 11.5x higher energy efficiency compared with the CPU and GPU respectively.
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